Other battery chemicals
The Nickel-Cadmium (NiCd) battery has excellent battery characteristics, including high cycle capacity (about 2000 cycles), low self-discharge ( years ), high power density ( 8 times better than lead acid ), can be quickly recharged down to 15 minutes. The cell voltage is 1.2V
However, the battery has disappeared more or less from the market. The reason is that it contains the toxic substance cadmium as well as the high cost per Ah ( about 6 times more expensive than lead acid ).
The successor Nickel-Metal Hydride (NiMH) has not been successful. Mostly due to a still high price per Ah ( about 6 times compared to lead acid ), but also due to the relatively high self-discharge rate of the battery.
Available exclusively in small cells in the range 0.1-5Ah. Cell voltage 1.2V.
Lithium-iron phosphate (LiFEPO4) is now a coming up.
The battery is , unlike its sisters used in cell phones, laptops , not Cobalt, Polymer or Manganese based.
Instead, the elements are commonly available in nature except Lithium and are not classified as hazardous to the environment.
After some stability problems, lithium iron phosphate now looks like the major lead setter in the long run. High cycle capacity (more than 2,000 ), high power density ( about 3 times higher than lead acid ), quick recharging down to less than an hour and good performance even below freezing point makes the battery interesting. The price is not. Still too high in cost but falling steadily. Cell voltage 3.6V.
The continued success of the battery type is highly dependent on whether more Lithium deposits are found.
In addition to describe types there is the Zinc-air type and some others at the moment non-commercial battery types.